Musical instruments are designed to extract various sounds. If the musician plays well, then these sounds can be called music, if not, then the cacophony. There are so many instruments that their study looks like a fascinating game pohlesche Nancy Drew! In modern musical practice, instruments are divided into different classes and families according to the source of sound, the material of production, the method of sound extraction, and other characteristics.
Wind musical instruments (aerophones)
Wind musical instruments (aerophones): a group of musical instruments whose sound source – fluctuations of the air column in the bore of the barrel (tube). Classify by many features (for material, construction, methods of sound production, etc.). In a symphony orchestra, a group of wind musical instruments is divided into wooden (flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon) and copper (trumpet, horn, trombone, tuba).
1. Flute is a woodwind musical instrument. The modern type of transverse flute (with valves) was invented by the German master T. Böhm in 1832 and has varieties: small (or flute-piccolo), viola and bass flute.
2. The oboe is a wooden wind-tongued reed musical instrument. Known since the 17th century. Varieties: small oboe, oboe, d’amur, English horn, gekelfon.
3. Clarinet is a wooden wind-tongued reed musical instrument. It is designed in the beginning. 18 century. In modern practice, soprano clarinets, clarinet-piccolo (Italian piccolo), viola (bassethorn), bass violin are used.
4. Bassoon is a woodwind musical instrument (mostly orchestral). Originated in the 1 st floor. 16th c. Bass variety – counterfeit.
5. The trumpet is a brass musical musical instrument, known since ancient times. The modern type of the valve tube is formed to sulfur. 19th century
6. French horn – wind musical instrument. Appeared in the late 17th century as a result of the improvement of the hunting horn. The modern type of French horn with gates was created in the first quarter of the 19th century.
7. The trombone is a brass musical instrument (mainly orchestral), in which the height of the sound is regulated by a special adaptation – a curtain (the so-called sliding trombone or zugtrombone). There are also valve trombones.
8. Tuba – the lowest on sound brass copper musical instrument. It was designed in Germany in 1835.
Metalophones are a kind of musical instruments, the main element of which are plate-keys, which are beaten with a hammer.
1. Sounding musical instruments (bells, gongs, vibrafons, etc.), whose sound source is their resilient metal body. The sound is extracted by hammers, chopsticks, special drummers (languages).
2. Instruments of the xylophone type, in contrast to which the metalophone plates are made of metal.
Stringed musical instruments (chordophones)
Stringed musical instruments (chordophones): divided into bowed instruments (eg violin, cello, gigak, kamancha), plucked (harp, harp, guitar, balalaika), percussion (cymbals), percussion (piano), keyboards (harpsichord).
1. The violin is a 4-string bow musical instrument. The highest in the register in the violin family, which formed the basis of the symphony orchestra of the classical composition and string quartet.
2. The cello is a musical instrument of the violin family of the basso-tenor register. Appeared in the 15-16 centuries. Classical patterns were created by Italian masters of the 17th and 18th centuries: A. and N. Amati, J. Guarneri, A. Stradivari.
3. Guijak is a stringed bow musical instrument (Tajik, Uzbek, Turkmen, Uighur).
4. Kemancha (kamancha) – 3-4-string bow musical instrument. Distributed in Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Dagestan, as well as the Middle and Near East.
5. Harp (from Harfe) is a multi-stringed plucked musical instrument. Early images – in the third millennium BC. In the simplest form is found in almost all peoples. The modern pedal harp was invented in 1801 by S. Erard in France.
6. Gusli – Russian stringed plucked musical instrument. Pterygoid gusli (“zvonchatye”) have 4-14 or more strings, helmet-shaped – 11-36, rectangular (table-shaped) – 55-66 strings.
7. Guitar (Spanish guitarra, from the Greek cithara) is a stringed plucked instrument of the lute type. In Spain it is known from the 13th century, in the 17-18th centuries it spread in the countries of Europe and America, including as a folk instrument. Since the 18th century, 6-string guitar has become a common use, the 7-string has become popular mainly in Russia. Among the varieties of the so-called Hawaiian guitar; in modern pop music the electric guitar is used.
8. Balalaika – Russian folk 3-string plucked musical instrument. Known from the beginning. 18 century. Improved in the 1880’s. (under the guidance of VV Andreev) VV Ivanov and FS Paserbsky, who designed the family of balalaikas, later – SI Nalimov.
9. Tsymbaly (Polish cymbaly) is a multi-stringed percussion musical instrument of ancient origin. They are part of the national orchestras of Hungary, Poland, Romania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldavia, etc.
10. Piano (Italian fortepiano, from forte – loudly and piano – quietly) is a common name for keyboard musical instruments with hammer mechanics (grand piano, piano). The piano was invented in the beginning. 18 century. The appearance of a modern type of piano – with the so-called. double rehearsal – refers to the 1820’s. The heyday of piano performance – 19-20 centuries.
11. Harpsichord (French clavecin) – stringed key-plucked musical instrument, the predecessor of the piano. Known since the 16th century. There were harpsichords of various forms, types and varieties, including chibalo, verdinel, spinet, clavciuterium.
Keyboard musical instruments
Keyboard musical instruments: a group of musical instruments united by a common sign – the presence of key mechanics and keyboards. They are divided into different classes and types. Keyboard musical instruments can be combined with other categories.
1. Strings (piano keyboards and keyboards): pianoforte, celesta, harpsichord and its varieties.
2. Wind (key-wind and reed): organ and its varieties, harmonium, accordion, accordion, melodic.
3. Electromechanical: electric piano, keyboard
4. Electronic: electronic pianos
pianos (Italian fortepiano, from forte – loudly and piano – quietly) – the general name of keyboard musical instruments with hammer mechanics (grand piano, piano). It was invented in the early 18th century. The appearance of a modern type of piano – with the so-called. double rehearsal – refers to the 1820’s. The flourishing of piano performance – 19-20 centuries
Percussion musical instruments
Percussion musical instruments: a group of instruments united by the method of sound-producing – a blow. The source of sound is a solid body, a membrane, a string. The instruments differ from certain (timpani, bells, xylophones) and indefinite (drums, tambourines, castanets) with the height of sound.
1. Litavra (timpani) (from the Greek polytaurea) is a percussion musical instrument of a cauldron shape with a membrane, often paired (nagara, etc.). Distributed since ancient times.
2. Bells – orchestral percussion self-sounding musical instrument: a set of metal plates.
3. Xylophone (from xylophone … and Greek phone – sound, voice) – percussive self-sounding musical instrument. It consists of a number of wooden blocks of various lengths
4. The drum is a percussive membrane musical instrument. Varieties are found in many peoples.
5. Tambourine is a percussive membrane musical instrument, sometimes with metal pendants.
6. Castanets (castanetas) – percussion musical instrument; Wooden (or plastic) plates in the form of shells, strengthened on the fingers.
Electromusical instruments: musical instruments in which sound is created as a result of the generation, amplification and conversion of electrical signals (using electronic equipment). They have a peculiar timbre, they can imitate various instruments. To the electric musical instruments belong the termvox, emitriton, electric guitar, electoral organs, etc.
1. The Termenvox is the first domestic electric musical instrument, designed by L. S. Termen.The pitch of the sound in the termenix varies depending on the distance of the right hand of the performer to one of the antennas, loudness – from the distance of the left hand to the other antenna.
2. Emitrone is an electronic musical instrument equipped with a piano-type keyboard.Constructed in the USSR by inventors AA Ivanov, AV Rimsky-Korsakov, VA Kreutzer and VP Dzerzhkovich (the first model in 1935).
3. El a guitar, usually made of wood, with electric pickups that convert the vibrations of metal strings into electric current oscillations.The first magnetic pickup was made by Gibson engineer Lloyd Lauer in 1924. The most common six-string electric guitars