Can stomach burst if eat too much?

The stomach volume of an average adult person is about 0.5 liters, and after eating it increases to 1.5 liters. But also it not a limit – the nature has taken care of those who likes to eat much, and has awarded a stomach with elastic walls which, being stretched, are capable to increase in volume to 5 liters! But what if you eat more food? Can the stomach eventually burst from the abundance of food?

Of course, it is possible – the walls of the stomach can not withstand pressure and tear. But to achieve this is very difficult: a person has a good protective mechanism – a vomitive reflex. Most people simply can not physically eat so much food that the stomach can not stand it and burst – incoming food will immediately go back. Therefore, people with a lack of vomiting reflex due to any physical or mental abnormalities can expose themselves to danger due to a burst stomach. Rarely, but such cases do occur. Particularly high risk participants of competitions on high-speed eating of the maximum amount of food. As a rule, by frequent training, they were able to extinguish their gag reflex to a minimum.

Pre-holiday effect in financial markets

Holidays have a special effect on financial markets. Over the past 100 years, exchanges in the west have been closed for nine different holidays throughout the year. (For a more effective demonstration of the pre-holiday effect, we use the American market and holidays, since there are much more trades there.) History shows that stock prices behave in a certain way for 2 (sometimes more) days before the holidays . Long-term investors and short-term traders can use these price behaviors for their own profit.

The general pre-holiday shopping rule is buy a few days before the holiday . Short-term traders usually sell the tool immediately after the holiday (within a week), and long-term investors usually wait for the end of the year. Regardless of which approach you prefer – fleeting profit or long-term investment – both strategies have proven to bring good results.

The essence of the pre-holiday effect

The essence of the pre-holiday effect is that traders sell shares before the holidays on two reasons:

  1. get your capital to make purchases before the holiday
  2. get rid of the risk : while the market is closed, something may not happen in favor of traders

the offer increases, the price falls and it’s a good time to use this simple pre-holiday effect .

This table shows the results of the described trading strategy. (Results are based on the S & P 500 index from 1928 to 1975.)

Holiday Purchase for 2 days Purchase for 1 day
New Year 31.1% 19.6%
The Passionate Friday 7.3% 17.8%
Presidents’ Day (end of February) -0.1% 12.2%
Memorial Day (end of May) -4.7% 22.8 The day of independence (July 4) 13.3% 37.3%
Labor Day (beginning of September) 16.8% 33.7%
Elections (early November) 17.9% 4.6%
Thanksgiving Day (end of November) 4.3% 1.1%
Christmas (December 25) -7.1% 15.2%

(For all holidays, selling and the security took place at the end of the year.)

For a good example, if you invested 10,000 in January 1928 and sold in December 1978, you would have had a profit of 41,441. But if you invested 2000 before the holidays during these years, every year, and sold at the end of each year, then your final capital would be 30 times larger and would be 1440716!

Quick profit

Short-term investments will give a good result when choosing this strategy trade; To do this, you just have to sell the shares after the holiday for a week.

The graph clearly shows that Google shares could be profitable to buy on June 29 (on the eve of independence) at 523 and sell on July 5 to 541.

The growth would have been 3.44%. Of course, the profit would have been weighty only with serious investments from the absolute point of view. If you invest 100,000, you could earn more than 3000 in a few days.

The following example shows the relative growth of shares in Microsoft corporations and US Bancorp.

In both cases, the day of independence and sale after the holiday brought a good profit .

And here is another example of the New Year’s effect on the shares. Companies Yahoo and Baidu operate in the field of Internet services; see what profit can be obtained by using the pre-holiday effect correctly .

Long-term investment

In addition to extracting quick profits, Pre-holiday days can be used as places for long-term market entry . The chart clearly shows that before Easter there was a very favorable time for entering the market and buying Microsoft shares.

As a rule, accumulate good capital and take off your profit with an impressive percentage.

It is important to remember that there is always a risk that stocks will not behave as you expect, so you need to do at least a basic technical or fundamental analysis of the instrument of interest to you .

Use the strategy Pre-holiday Effe t wisely, and exchange your reward. Buy before the holidays, and sell immediately after the holiday or at the end of the year.

Antoine Bourdelle: sculptures, biography of the sculptor

Antoine Bourdelle (1861-1929)

 Antoine Bourdelle

Emil-Antoine Bourdelle – the largest sculptor-monumentalist of the first half of this century.

His influence was experienced by many major plastic craftsmen, art sculptors were trained in his workshop and beginning Russian sculptors, for example Vera Ignatyevna Mukhina. Prominent Soviet art historian BN Ternovets, also trained in sculpture from Bourdelle in Paris in the early 10-ies, wrote: “In my memory, Burdel gets up, coming in the morning to proofread in an impatiently waiting workshop; the first remarks are abrupt, laconic … And then always the unexpected association of thought or image ignites his imagination … The internal logic of the eloquence of Burdel led him to exaggerations, accentuations, maximum expressiveness – showing here the same pattern that is revealed in his sculptural work .. During this period of the beginning of fame the earnings of a teacher of a private academy could not interest Bourdelle at all; but he loved school, willingly fussed with students, sometimes visiting exhibitions with them, taking them in his studio, his living nature required communication, expression outside; listeners were necessary to him, the speech he uttered, lit first of all himself. In this desire to teach and edify, the same need, which sought the expression of expression, directed the sculptor and Burdel, attracted him to monumental forms that enabled him to appeal to the masses with a sermon and a call. ”

Burdel led a sculptural workshop in an art school on the street Grand-Shomiere. Usually he came to the “proof”, that is, to do the corrections of the students’ works, on Thursdays. Among the students were people of many nationalities. About twelve days, one of the students, anxiously awaiting the arrival of his master, announced his appearance. Bourdelle entered, dressed in a dark gray broad blouse, with a smile on his face. And then, as one of his disciples recalled, “a deafening noise is heard, like the roar of distant waves: each strives to squeeze closer, to make his way between the machine tools and the students as close as possible to the great sculptor.”

Burdel himself was an assistant to the great Rodin in his youth. Burdel bowed before his predecessor, but at the heart of his art lay other ideals. Burdel strove for a strict architectonic form. The images of the heroes of his sculpture are reserved, sometimes severe. His works were works of Greek antiquity – a clear harmonious classics and a mean, slightly heavy archaic. The sculptures of Burdel were full of solemn pathetic and grandeur, his artistic language was laconic and expressive.

One of the first works in which Burdel tried to revive the spirit of antiquity was the “Head of Apollo”, performed in 1900. Burdel worked on it not according to the patterns in the Louvre, but having before him a specific sitter. Apollo is the sun god, the leader of the muses. There were traditions of his portrayal in European art, it is enough to recall the famous Apollo Belvedere, with his spectacular gesture of the outstretched hand, with which the folds of the cloak fall. In Burdel, Apollo does not strike with his beauty, but with masculinity, his image is calm and balanced, he feels an inner spiritual strength.

The idea of ​​the power of ancient gods and heroes is embedded in other works of Bourdelle.

1909 Burdel performed a bronze sculpture, two and a half meters high – “Hercules the Archer”. The basis for the sculpture was an episode associated with the sixth feat of Hercules. Hercules expelled the Stimphalian birds with sharp iron feathers, which were rooted in a forest swamp near the town of Stymphal in Arcadia and devoured people. Hercules received special copper rattles from the goddess Athena, scared the birds, made them fly into the air and shot them. “Hercules”, or as this sculpture is also called, “Shooting Hercules” is an image of strength, speed and movement, and at the same time a balanced composition that rigidly fits like a relief into a narrow space between two parallel planes.

In “Hercules”, as in the “Discobol” of Myron, combines two moments of motion. The athlete and pulls the imaginary string of the giant bow, aiming, and already as if watching the flight of the released arrow. Burdel resorts to a complex construction of the figure. The reference point for the figure of the archer is the right knee, and with his left foot Hercules seems to be repelled from the upright spur of the rock. Powerful movement from right to left – the effort of the right hand pulling the bowstring – is connected with the direction of movement from left to right, underlined by the look of Hercules, its profile squashed and pointed, like the arrowhead.

The silhouette of the whole figure is angular, in its sharpened sharpness a frozen clot energy, cast in hot bronze. For all the complexity of the composition, the sculpture remains spread like a bas-relief.

Although Burdel refers to the ancient story and uses the traditions of ancient Greek art, his work belongs entirely to the twentieth century. It embodies the expression and tension that were characteristic features of the artistic worldview of the beginning of the century.

Antiquity, to which Burdel often turned during his work, helped the master restore to the sculpture the high syllable, civicism and pathetic lost during the decline of spatial arts in XIX century. But the heroics of antiquity was far from the tragic collisions of the 20th century.

In 1914, Burdel creates a sculpture “The Dying Centaur”, on the base of which he makes the inscription: “The Death of the Last Centaur.” In contrast to the “Hercules”, in which the image of antiquity was revealed as a holistic and triumphant, “The Dying Centaur”, a symbol of a creature with dual nature, personified in the human torso and horse’s rump, means the departure from the stage of ancient heroes. The ascetic interpretation of the male torso in the Centaur reminds us not of the fullness of the forms of antiquity, but of the medieval crucifixes of Christ.

An attempt to create a monument in honor of the hero of modern times became for Burdel a monument to General Alvear. General Alvear is the leader of the struggle for the independence of Argentina. The monument, over which Burdel worked from 1912 to 1923, was installed in Buenos Aires.

At the heart of the composition of the monument to Alvear lay the idea of ​​an allegorical work. The equestrian statue of the general, five-and-a-half meters high, was placed by Burdel on a high granite pedestal, at four corners of which stood the four-meter figures of the Force, Victory, Freedom and Eloquence. The image of Alvear – a rider on horseback – dates back to the Renaissance tradition of statues of condottieri, as, for example, the monument of Colleoni in Venice by the work of Verrocchio.

The classics of monumental sculpture of the 20th century became figures embodying the dignity and strength of a glorious warrior. Above these sculptures, Burdel worked at a time when the events of the First World War were unfolding in Europe. It was a time when many artists and writers experienced a spiritual crisis, former ideals collapsed, former comrades-in-arms were separated by the front line.

Burdel strove to continue in his art the service of goodness, courage and beauty. His plastic language became even stricter, the forms even more concise. High figures, like pillars, with elongated proportions are perceived as watchful sentries guarding the freedom won by the people. “Victory” is a warrior-maiden, wearing a tunic, with a sword in her hands. Above this statue the sculptor worked in Paris, when he was fired upon by the Germans. Refusing to leave the city, he said: “When I finish, I’ll go. “Victory” is my way of fighting. ”

Just as in his workshop, Burdel taught the students the basics of art sculpture, and in his work he wanted to give a lesson of citizenship and loyalty to humanistic ideals. The conditions in which the sculptor worked, did not allow his monumental talent to develop fully, gave rise to inconsistency in his aspirations. But he was one of the first who turned to people in the language of plastics, consonant with the scale of the social collisions of time. Burdel was not only the author of the monuments, he was one of the largest portrait painters, he decorated the public buildings with the reliefs (the Theater des Champs Elysees in Paris), he was a great draftsman, an art connoisseur.

Sculptural works by Antoine Bourdelle

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What are musical instruments? (photo, name)

 What are musical instruments?

Musical instruments are designed to extract various sounds. If the musician plays well, then these sounds can be called music, if not, then the cacophony. There are so many instruments that their study looks like a fascinating game pohlesche Nancy Drew! In modern musical practice, instruments are divided into different classes and families according to the source of sound, the material of production, the method of sound extraction, and other characteristics.

Wind musical instruments (aerophones)

Wind musical instruments (aerophones): a group of musical instruments whose sound source – fluctuations of the air column in the bore of the barrel (tube). Classify by many features (for material, construction, methods of sound production, etc.). In a symphony orchestra, a group of wind musical instruments is divided into wooden (flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon) and copper (trumpet, horn, trombone, tuba).

 Wind musical instruments (aerophones)

1. Flute is a woodwind musical instrument. The modern type of transverse flute (with valves) was invented by the German master T. Böhm in 1832 and has varieties: small (or flute-piccolo), viola and bass flute.

2. The oboe is a wooden wind-tongued reed musical instrument. Known since the 17th century. Varieties: small oboe, oboe, d’amur, English horn, gekelfon.

3. Clarinet is a wooden wind-tongued reed musical instrument. It is designed in the beginning. 18 century. In modern practice, soprano clarinets, clarinet-piccolo (Italian piccolo), viola (bassethorn), bass violin are used.

4. Bassoon is a woodwind musical instrument (mostly orchestral). Originated in the 1 st floor. 16th c. Bass variety – counterfeit.

5. The trumpet is a brass musical musical instrument, known since ancient times. The modern type of the valve tube is formed to sulfur. 19th century

6. French horn – wind musical instrument. Appeared in the late 17th century as a result of the improvement of the hunting horn. The modern type of French horn with gates was created in the first quarter of the 19th century.

7. The trombone is a brass musical instrument (mainly orchestral), in which the height of the sound is regulated by a special adaptation – a curtain (the so-called sliding trombone or zugtrombone). There are also valve trombones.

8. Tuba – the lowest on sound brass copper musical instrument. It was designed in Germany in 1835.


Metalophones are a kind of musical instruments, the main element of which are plate-keys, which are beaten with a hammer.

1. Sounding musical instruments (bells, gongs, vibrafons, etc.), whose sound source is their resilient metal body. The sound is extracted by hammers, chopsticks, special drummers (languages).

2. Instruments of the xylophone type, in contrast to which the metalophone plates are made of metal.

Stringed musical instruments (chordophones)

Stringed musical instruments (chordophones): divided into bowed instruments (eg violin, cello, gigak, kamancha), plucked (harp, harp, guitar, balalaika), percussion (cymbals), percussion (piano), keyboards (harpsichord).

 Stringed musical instruments (chordophones)
1. The violin is a 4-string bow musical instrument. The highest in the register in the violin family, which formed the basis of the symphony orchestra of the classical composition and string quartet.

2. The cello is a musical instrument of the violin family of the basso-tenor register. Appeared in the 15-16 centuries. Classical patterns were created by Italian masters of the 17th and 18th centuries: A. and N. Amati, J. Guarneri, A. Stradivari.

3. Guijak is a stringed bow musical instrument (Tajik, Uzbek, Turkmen, Uighur).

4. Kemancha (kamancha) – 3-4-string bow musical instrument. Distributed in Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Dagestan, as well as the Middle and Near East.

5. Harp (from Harfe) is a multi-stringed plucked musical instrument. Early images – in the third millennium BC. In the simplest form is found in almost all peoples. The modern pedal harp was invented in 1801 by S. Erard in France.

6. Gusli – Russian stringed plucked musical instrument. Pterygoid gusli (“zvonchatye”) have 4-14 or more strings, helmet-shaped – 11-36, rectangular (table-shaped) – 55-66 strings.

7. Guitar (Spanish guitarra, from the Greek cithara) is a stringed plucked instrument of the lute type. In Spain it is known from the 13th century, in the 17-18th centuries it spread in the countries of Europe and America, including as a folk instrument. Since the 18th century, 6-string guitar has become a common use, the 7-string has become popular mainly in Russia. Among the varieties of the so-called Hawaiian guitar; in modern pop music the electric guitar is used.

8. Balalaika – Russian folk 3-string plucked musical instrument. Known from the beginning. 18 century. Improved in the 1880’s. (under the guidance of VV Andreev) VV Ivanov and FS Paserbsky, who designed the family of balalaikas, later – SI Nalimov.

9. Tsymbaly (Polish cymbaly) is a multi-stringed percussion musical instrument of ancient origin. They are part of the national orchestras of Hungary, Poland, Romania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldavia, etc.

10. Piano (Italian fortepiano, from forte – loudly and piano – quietly) is a common name for keyboard musical instruments with hammer mechanics (grand piano, piano). The piano was invented in the beginning. 18 century. The appearance of a modern type of piano – with the so-called. double rehearsal – refers to the 1820’s. The heyday of piano performance – 19-20 centuries.

11. Harpsichord (French clavecin) – stringed key-plucked musical instrument, the predecessor of the piano. Known since the 16th century. There were harpsichords of various forms, types and varieties, including chibalo, verdinel, spinet, clavciuterium.

Keyboard musical instruments

Keyboard musical instruments: a group of musical instruments united by a common sign – the presence of key mechanics and keyboards. They are divided into different classes and types. Keyboard musical instruments can be combined with other categories.

 Keyboard musical instruments

1. Strings (piano keyboards and keyboards): pianoforte, celesta, harpsichord and its varieties.

2. Wind (key-wind and reed): organ and its varieties, harmonium, accordion, accordion, melodic.

3. Electromechanical: electric piano, keyboard

4. Electronic: electronic pianos

pianos (Italian fortepiano, from forte – loudly and piano – quietly) – the general name of keyboard musical instruments with hammer mechanics (grand piano, piano). It was invented in the early 18th century. The appearance of a modern type of piano – with the so-called. double rehearsal – refers to the 1820’s. The flourishing of piano performance – 19-20 centuries

Percussion musical instruments

Percussion musical instruments: a group of instruments united by the method of sound-producing – a blow. The source of sound is a solid body, a membrane, a string. The instruments differ from certain (timpani, bells, xylophones) and indefinite (drums, tambourines, castanets) with the height of sound.

 Percussion musical instruments
1. Litavra (timpani) (from the Greek polytaurea) is a percussion musical instrument of a cauldron shape with a membrane, often paired (nagara, etc.). Distributed since ancient times.

2. Bells – orchestral percussion self-sounding musical instrument: a set of metal plates.

3. Xylophone (from xylophone … and Greek phone – sound, voice) – percussive self-sounding musical instrument. It consists of a number of wooden blocks of various lengths

4. The drum is a percussive membrane musical instrument. Varieties are found in many peoples.

5. Tambourine is a percussive membrane musical instrument, sometimes with metal pendants.

6. Castanets (castanetas) – percussion musical instrument; Wooden (or plastic) plates in the form of shells, strengthened on the fingers.

Electromusical instruments

Electromusical instruments: musical instruments in which sound is created as a result of the generation, amplification and conversion of electrical signals (using electronic equipment). They have a peculiar timbre, they can imitate various instruments. To the electric musical instruments belong the termvox, emitriton, electric guitar, electoral organs, etc.

1. The Termenvox is the first domestic electric musical instrument, designed by L. S. Termen.The pitch of the sound in the termenix varies depending on the distance of the right hand of the performer to one of the antennas, loudness – from the distance of the left hand to the other antenna.

2. Emitrone is an electronic musical instrument equipped with a piano-type keyboard.Constructed in the USSR by inventors AA Ivanov, AV Rimsky-Korsakov, VA Kreutzer and VP Dzerzhkovich (the first model in 1935).

3. El a guitar, usually made of wood, with electric pickups that convert the vibrations of metal strings into electric current oscillations.The first magnetic pickup was made by Gibson engineer Lloyd Lauer in 1924. The most common six-string electric guitars

In Monaco presented a new project to expand the territory of the Principality

The Principality of Monaco is considered the pearl of the Côte d’Azur of France. The developed infrastructure, high level of security, dynamically developing business, mild climate and picturesque landscapes all attract not only tourists from all over the world, but also investors and wealthy people. Almost all politicians, businessmen and other influential people of the planet are willing to buy property here. And despite its small size, the principality of Monaco never ceases to amaze with new construction projects.

Monaco expands – great news for those who wish to buy property on the Cote d’Azur


The territory of Monaco, whose area does not reach two square kilometers, is already has long been mastered by construction companies and is densely strewn with numerous residential complexes and business centers. It would seem that there is already no one meter on which it would be possible to erect a new structure. But no. The authorities of the principality presented an absolutely fantastic project to expand their territory to 6 hectares, and this piece of land is planned to be conquered by the sea.


“New Monaco” will be built up with modern residential buildings, restaurants, luxury hotels, huge supermarkets and business centers. There is a place for beautiful parks, and other institutions that are designed for a decent, happy life. Unique, ready-made models of the future part of the principality have already been presented, and each of them, without exaggeration, is a real architectural masterpiece.


Eco-Monaco is a great place for those who dream of living where there is no production enterprise, and erected only luxurious houses, drowning in greenery, you can hear the surf and the purest sea air. Most of the territory reclaimed from the sea, and this is more than 60 thousand square meters, will be built up with modern residential buildings and work on the embodiment of the plan has already begun.


Dozens of huge barges with building structures are constantly coming to the place of the future town. Builders do not have a minute of downtime. And knowing the peculiarities of the Monegasque to create and do its work perfectly, there can be no doubt that very soon the world will see the new quarter of Monaco.


Even today the government of the principality stated that the sale of real estate here will be carried out at lower prices than in modern Monaco. So why not think about buying an elite property in a unique town of its own?

Introduction to financial markets

The financial market is a mechanism that allows people to easily sell and buy securities (stocks and bonds), goods (precious metals and agricultural products) and other interchangeable items at a fairly low operating cost and at prices that reflect the hypothesis of an effective market.

Over the past few centuries, the world financial markets have changed a lot, and are in the stage of constant change, development and growth. The financial market of Ukraine is just beginning to develop, and the boom of the Ukrainian financial market is expected in the next 5-10 years .

Types of financial markets

  • securities market
    • stock market (trade in shares of open joint-stock companies OJSC)
    • bond market (trade in promissory notes, bonds)
  • commodity market (trade in commodities such as wheat, gold, etc.)
  • money market (short-term loans and investments)
  • futures market (standard forward and futures contracts)
  • insurance market (risk management)
  • foreign exchange market (FOREX; foreign currency trading)
  • real estate market (trade in land, houses, offices, living areas, etc.)

There are 2 more common type of financial markets :

  1. general (it is traded with different goods and securities)
  2. specialized (it is traded with only one kind of commodity or type of securities)

The role of the financial market

The essence and the main role of the financial market is to unite all the sellers so that they are le GKO available to potential buyers . Thus, if the economy relies primarily on the relationship between buyers and sellers in the allocation of resources, then this economy can be called a market economy. (Recall that Ukraine was internationally recognized as a market economy in December 2005.)

Financial markets are conducive to:

  • accumulating and increasing capital
  • transmission and risk management (hedging)
  • to international trade ( in the foreign exchange market)

The financial market also serves to unite those who seek capital and those who have it.

Often, the borrower (the one who takes the capital) issues to the creditor (the one who gives the capital) a receipt or bill promising to repay capital. These bills are called securities which can be freely sold and bought. For the fact that the creditor has given the borrower a loan, he naturally expects some compensation, which is usually paid in the form of interest or dividends.

Museum of Urban Transport in Luxembourg

 Luxembourg City Transport Museum

The Luxembourg City Transport Museum is a specialized museum complex located on rue de Boullion in Luxembourg.

The museum presents many interesting exhibits related to the history of public transport. Here you can see the development of transport infrastructure from the time of horse carriages to our days.

The museum, which was famous all over the country, began its work in 1991. It is worth noting that a collection of ancient public transport and communications with him began to collect in the early sixties. Public transport workers began collecting interesting items and rare artifacts that had a close connection with the development and history of transport.

The museum itself is housed in a modern building that is executed in a concise and simple style. Inside the building there are many interesting exhibits. Here you can find authentic old tram cars, several restored buses, as well as special transport with a tower for maintenance of electrical networks. In addition, here you can see a lot of old household items and personal belongings of workers. Authentic sets of uniforms, old travel tickets, as well as other products and photos are collected here. Special attention should be paid to the reduced models of old trams, which accurately demonstrate the design and interior decoration of old cars.

The most famous museum of the state, the museum of urban transport in Luxembourg is an exciting attraction that must be visited by all lovers of history. Here you can see a lot of interesting and old exhibits that can tell about the history of the development of public transport.

What is music?

What is music? We listen to music, create it. It evokes associations with certain moments of our life …

Music is a kind of art in which music is organized in a certain way to create artistic images. The basic elements and expressive means of music – harmony, rhythm, meter, tempo, timbre, melody, harmony, polyphony, instrumentation. By performing means, music is divided into vocal (singing), instrumental and vocal-instrumental. Music is often combined with choreography, theater, cinema. Distinguish music monophonic (monody) and polyphonic (homophony, polyphony). Music is divided into: genera and types – theater (opera, etc.), symphonic, chamber, etc .; on genres – a song, a chorale, a dance, a march, a symphony, a suite, a sonata, etc. Music is recorded in musical notation and is realized in the process of performing musical instruments.

Basic concepts in music

Lad – the most important aesthetic category of music ; system of pitch connections, united by the central sound (accord). It is embodied in a scale (sound system).

Rhythm :

1. alternation of any elements (sound, speech, etc.), occurring with a certain sequence, frequency; speed of flow, fulfillment of something.

2. in music – the temporary organization of musical sounds and their combinations.

Meter – the order of alternation of strong and weak parts, the system of organization rhythm . Meters can be simple (2 or 3-lobed), complex, consisting of several groups of simple (4-, 6-, 9-, 12-lobed), mixed (eg, 5-lobed) and variables. Each group of shares, beginning with a strong (in simple meters) or the strongest (in other meters), forms a measure.

Metronome – a device that measures short intervals (the same meters) blows. It is mainly used by musicians as the exact landmark of the tempo when performing a piece of music at a rehearsal, and also helps to develop a sense of rhythm and dynamics performance.


Melody (from Greek melodia – singing, melody, song) – a single-voiced musical thought, the main element of music. A melody is a series of sounds organized rhythmically and intonationally, forming a certain structure.

Harmony – the expressive means of music, based on the combination of tones in the consonance and the connection of consonance in their consecutive movement. The main type of harmony is a chord. Harmony is built according to certain laws of harmony in polyphonic music of any kind – homophony, polyphony. Elements of harmony – cadence and modulation – the most important factors of musical form. The doctrine of harmony is one of the main sections of the theory of music.

Polyphony (from poly … and Greek phone – sound, voice) – a kind of polyphony, is based on the simultaneous combination of 2 and more independent melodies (as opposed to homophony). Types of polyphony – imitation (see Imitation), contrasting (contrapunmenting different melodies) and sub-voice (the combination of melody and its variants-sub-voices, characteristic of some genres of Russian folk songs).

Instrumentation – the presentation of music in the form of score for the chamber ensemble (duo, trio, quartet, quintet, etc.) or orchestra (symphonic, wind, folk instruments, etc.).

In the historical context, the development of music is inseparable from the active development of man’s sensory abilities – the course of a person’s auditory mastering of musical material in a changing cultural setting is the most fundamental level of the history of music. Already in the framework of primitive syncretic art, which also contained rudiments of dance and poetry, music was deprived of many qualities that became dominant later.

In the early stadia folklore of different nations, musical sound is unstable in height, uninterrupted from speech articulation. Melody is often a combination of glissanding ups and downs (ecmelics), combining contrasting high-altitude zones in a rhythmic order, depending on the rhythm of the verbal text and dance. However, this primary pitch contrast is already endowed with emotional expressiveness due to the initial connection of musical intonation with the psychophysiological states of people, with the word, the plastic movement; thanks to the inclusion of music making in everyday life, in labor processes, in rituals (folk music).

The constancy of these links, which forms the primary musical genres, leads to the stabilization of the heights (and, as a consequence, to their fixation in a certain order). Thus, in the social musical consciousness, the height of sound is separated from the timbre of voice and speech articulation; a category of fret appears. There are scales and melodies based on them. Soundness, recorded in the musical structure, suggests the development of auditory skills (musical ear), special musical memory, which holds the position of sound in the altitude range, relative to other sounds. Finding the exact height, intonation becomes capable of embodying a wider and differentiated figurative meaning. It, on the one hand, appears as a trace of their past meaning, preserved in the intonational formulas, connected with the context of music making, with the primary genre; on the other hand, the process of “taking” meaning into intonation “from the outside”, from the emerging new connections of music and words, playing music and its sociocultural context continues.

In the professional work of mature musical cultures, the intonation of the dance movement, ritual situations, specific actions of other art forms is preserved. At the same time, music in a number of genre directions is gradually freed from direct dependence on the word, everyday or ritual context. The intonational elements and the laws of their organization (harmony, musical form) acquire logical independence and their own historical life, although they nevertheless retain a multi-valued connection with the word and the social context in symbolic-associative form. An autonomous musical language appears capable of expressing both concreteness of experience and generality of thought simultaneously.



When did the animals have eyes?

Most people know the world visually. The eye is able to perceive electromagnetic radiation, one of the varieties of which is light, and transform it into a picture perceived by our brain.

If we look around, we will see that the eyes have both a tiny midge and a bird hovering in the sky, and at a fish floating in a sea abyss. All this suggests that living beings on Earth should have a common ancestor, in which the first appeared something similar to photosensitive cells, later evolved into the eyes. When did this happen?

Archaeologists, studying ancient fossils, have long noticed that in sediments you can draw a sharp boundary, located at the turn about 541 million years ago. And if up to this point the ancient deposits were extremely poor even with poorly preserved biological remains, then after this time limit biological diversity multiplies many times. It was then that the Earth was inhabited by animals that remotely resembled modern species. The skeleton appears in animals, a large number of organisms with mineralized tissues appear, the fossils of which reach our days practically in an ideal state. This most important event for the planet was called Cambrian Explosion.

Dickinsonia is a typical representative of the fauna of the Ediacar era | source

The surviving fossils have survived so well that, using the latest technology, scientists can draw conclusions not only about the external structure of beings that lived 540 million years ago, but also about the inner structure and their sense organs. It is interesting that all the fossil organs of sight that they were able to detect have a rather complex structure. They could not come out of nothing without a long evolution. Probably the animals that first acquired eye analogs should be sought before the Cambrian Explosion – during the period called Ediacaria, which began about 635 million years ago.

Unfortunately, very few fossil remains of living creatures of the Ediacaria period were discovered. This can be explained by the fact that on the planet there were only soft-bodied organisms, so their bodies had no chance to reach us even in the form of fossils. We will venture to name the time when the animals had eyes, at 600-580 million years ago.

What did these first eyes look like on the planet? They were very different from the current ones. Most likely, it was just a cluster of photosensitive cells that could tell their wearer the intensity of the light to determine the time of day or to assess the local depth (all life in those days existed in the seas and oceans). Those first animals that received the rudiments of vision showed better fitness than other species, which resulted in their advantage, reproduction and rapid evolution of the organs of vision. Gradually the layer of photosensitive cells became thicker, could catch more light and even began to respond to movement, which helped animals find food.

It’s interesting: some modern inhabitants of the sea depths have visual organs that can look like the very first ones eyes in animals. For example, a hydra that uses photoreceptors located on tentacles reacting to the shadows of passing animals or determining the approach of night.

For a short evolutionary time, the organ of vision acquired a complex structure, which we see in representatives of the Cambrian fauna.

Interesting facts about the signs of the zodiac

The sign of the zodiac is determined by which star the person was born under. There are billions of stars in the sky. And to somehow distinguish them and not get confused, the names of the constellations were coined. As is known, throughout the year the Earth rotates around the Sun and passes through each of the constellations. There are 12 such constellations. Eight of them bear the names of animals. Every person born under a certain zodiac sign is endowed with his own character.

Aries. The beginning of the circle (21.03-20.04)

In the constellation Aries the Sun passes the point of the spring equinox. The people who were born under the cover of this constellation can be characterized by the following character traits:

– Stubbornness is not a flaw

– Do as I do, you still will not do it better.

– First I’ll do it, then just think. [19659005] – The hardest thing is to let the other person finish the conversation.

– Better not argue with me.

– One Aries is good, two is many.

– I never attack first, but God forbid To hurt me.

Taurus. Sacred (21.04-20.05) "title ="

In ancient times among the peoples of the Mediterranean, the main animal was a bull or bull. The fact is that without the help of a bull it was very difficult to plow the land. For example, in Ancient Egypt, no less than the deity worshiped the sacred bull Apis. Jews for a long time admired the Golden Taurus. In this constellation, the winter was hit by the Sun, which foreshadowed the beginning of spring. Incidentally, an adequate horoscope for June Taurus woman can be viewed on the site Taurus have their characteristics:

– I do not need someone else, but do not touch mine either.

– The taster is my true calling.

– I’m not sorry for buying money.

– Food is a pretty serious thing.

– Do not bother the one who has settled well.

– The affectionate calf of two queens sucks.

– When you eat the second, you save energy significantly.

Gemini. Non-separate (21.05-21.06)
 Interesting facts about the signs of the zodiac
This constellation is unique in nature. Two bright stars are located so close to each other that it becomes quite clear why the constellation was named after the twins – Pollux and Castor, the sons of Leda and Zeus. The legend says that during one bloody battle the brothers suffered greatly and as a result Castor died. The twin brother did not want to continue his existence without Castor and asked his father not to be separated. This constellation in ancient times was the patron saint of seamen, who fell into a storm. People with the zodiac sign Gemini are endowed with such vital principles:

– Figaro is here, Figaro is there.

– Who did not have time, he was late.

– I love the quantity, because quality never has enough time. 19659005] – Who owns the information, he owns the situation.

– I’m not answering the market for the bazaar.

– Today I’m not what I was yesterday.

– One phone and a TV at home are good, but three are much better.

Cancer. The sun is reversing (22.06-22.07)

The point of the summer solstice was located in this constellation approximately 2,000 years ago. Why, in fact, Cancer? Yes, because the Sun began to slowly back off, just like cancer. From that time the day grew shorter, and the night increased. According to ancient Greek mythology, the legendary Hercules was attacked by a huge Cancer. Mighty Hercules simply crushed the monster. But the wife of Zeus, the goddess Hera, hating Hercules with all her heart, placed Cancer in the sky as a constellation. People who are protected by Cancer can be characterized as follows:

-It’s got everyone who can wait.

– The past carries with him like a backpack.

– My house is my fortress.

– It’s hard live in a place where there is nowhere to hide.

– It’s good to stock up everything in the world – both with patience and jam.

– It’s better to wait and dig, but to buy a worthy thing.

– Nying with others is my calling. 19659005] Lev. The hottest (23.07-23.08)

“Great Fire” – the so-called constellation of the Lion, the Assyrians. Ancient Egyptians associated this constellation with lions, who at that time roamed to the Nile valley, thereby trying to escape from the unbearable heat. It is in the constellation of Leo that the Sun moves at this time. People-lions are endowed with such principles of life:

– I love to earn good money, but even more like spending it.

– It’s better to support than to get it.

– Why do you need the sun, if you are with me? [19659005] – How cordial I did not look, inside I’m a dictator.

– Pleasant manners are half the success.

– A beautiful sign on the door of the cabinet is more important than a high salary.

– If you do something big .

The Virgin. Fair (24.08-22.09)

The Virgin appeared in different hypostases: both Zeus’s mother-Ray and the Sphinx, as she was often identified with the goddess of justice – Themis, as well as with Astrea, the goddess of justice. Most often, Virgins are depicted with an ear in their hands. “Spika” is the name of the brightest star in the constellation Virgo. In Latin it means “ear”. The dev can be described as follows:

– Prove to me strictly logically that we are created for each other.

– In every virgin is a cool lady.

– Patience and work will all peretrut.

– Every person lives for myself, while serving the other.

– On a large scale, I’m lost.

– Modesty does not only adorn the girl, but the Virgin.

– Everything is necessary everywhere: in the kitchen and in thought.

]Libra. But there is no such animal (23.09-23.10)

The autumnal equinox came at a time when the Sun was getting into the constellation of Libra. The day went on as long as the night. This was because the Sun was on a heavenly balance in balance. The legend says that at that time Astrea and her mother, Themis, weighed on the “Weights of fate” the actions of people. Both bad and good. Libra symbolizes an objective court. Those born in this constellation can be described in the following words:

– Beauty will save the world.

– Without a partner, as without hands.

– The most difficult thing is to make a choice.

– Win over by agreeing.

– Is able to involve anyone anywhere.

– Do not over all “and” should be put a point.

The Scorpion. The most dangerous constellation (24.10-22.11)

If I may say so, at that time the Sun “fell ill”. It became pale and inactive. There was an impression that he had been poisoned. Perhaps it was the Scorpio who at one time stung the heavenly hunter of Orion … It is even possible that this Scorpio scared the death of Phaethon, the son of the sun god Helios, who fell from a fiery chariot. Scorpions are endowed with such principles:

– Not everyone is able to withstand my sight.

– I can be compared to a cactus. A fairy flower can only open to the elect.

– There must be a serious reason for a smile.

– It’s a pity there is no one to sting.

– I can free myself from everything except my own passions.

– I sing the song of love on the battlefield.

– My passions rarely go out like a shark that rarely floats to the surface.

– The world will be lost without knights.

Sagittarius. Starry (23.11-21.12.12)

Only the Sagittarius could cope with Scorpio. You can see that the Sagittarius directs its weapon to Scorpio. There are ancient star charts, in which Sagittarius is depicted as a centaur with two faces, just like the Roman god Janus. Sagittarius is the symbol of the new year and the end of the old one. One face of the centaur looks forward, into the future, and the other – back, to the past. The person who was born under the cover of the constellation of Sagittarius is characterized by the following expressions:

– It’s just impossible to be angry with me.

– Worrying beforehand is very stupid, let’s look at the situation.

– Ebb of conscience?

– My ideal is Ivan Tsarevich.

– Obligation is able to adorn only mediocre people.

– A good person should be a lot.

] Capricorn. Where are you climbing? (22.12-20.01)

In ancient times it was believed that in this constellation there was a point of the winter solstice. People believed that on the day of the winter solstice the sun passes the lowest point and starts to climb up slowly. Capricorn is portrayed as a goat with a fish tail. The legend says that the god Pan, who had goat’s legs, was frightened by Typhon, the giant, and flung himself into the water with fear. At this point, the legs were changed to fish tail. After this event, Pan no longer patronized the shepherds, as before, but became a harbinger of storms and sent rains. Capricorn people are characterized as follows:

– Do not break the laws: get away with another, and you will be caught.

– It’s nice to talk about distant countries while sitting at home.

– I’m not a sprinter, I’m a marathon runner [19659005] – Life is like a train, staying at every stop strictly according to the schedule.

– And one in the field warrior.

– I’m going-I’m not going to eat food when I’m driving – I will not let it down.

– It’s worthwhile to climb to the top only for the sake of spitting down from there.

– For myself, I need very little. All that I have is a mirror of my successes.

Aquarius. The Flood (21.01-19.02)

Aquarius poured the largest amount of rain. No matter how this constellation was called, it was depicted all the same: a man who pours water. The Sumerians portrayed how the Euphrates and the Tigris flow from the Aquarius jug. The Flood is associated with Aquarius. In ancient Egypt, the days when the Nile flooded, fell on the constellation of Aquarius. The nature of people born under the sign of the Aquarius can be described as follows:

– Good intentions are much more important than good deeds.

– If I came up with you, become what I want you to be.

– It’s hard to be an angel, but it is necessary …

– There is no me more cheerful, no me kinder.

– It’s boring to be like the others.

– Sex? In life, there are deeds and more important.

– In the first place friends, and then the family. If, of course, there will be time.

– The future simply must be beautiful.

Pisces. So they sailed to Aries (20.02-20.03)

It is logical to assume that there, where there is a lot of water, there are Pisces. Many fish were caught when the Sun was in this constellation. The Phoenicians portrayed the goddess of fertility as a woman with a fish tail. He appeared with the goddess, as well as with her son, at the moment when they fled in the waters, fleeing from the monster. People born under the sign of the zodiac Pisces are endowed with the following principles:

– Little did I promise you.

– Can understand everyone except myself.

– Empathy is more important than help.

– Everyone knows (19659005) – Order was invented by boring people.

– Willow bends in a whirlwind, and oak – falls.

– Do not put off till tomorrow what you can to do today.

– I can not give up alcohol just like a fish can not give up water.